To achieve this, the scientists modified the Nissle strain of Escherichia coli. It is harmless to humans. Thanks to the use of new technology, bubbles form on the bacterial membrane, which contain proteins and enzymes. They, in turn, destroy the extracellular matrix of cancer cells. Having passed through the membrane, bacteria then carry enzymes deep into the tumor.
The extracellular matrix of cancers is composed of collagen and hyaluronic acid. For this reason, it is more difficult for antibodies and immune cells to reach the tumor. This type of protection has a solid cancer. It is a dense tissue surrounded by a hard shell. Unlike cystic neoplasms, it is more difficult to cure and therefore much more dangerous.
The new bacterium is adapted to live in cancers. The researchers hope that their development can soon be used against tumors in the mouth and skin.